The issue of report cards and transcripts comes up often. I get many email queries about it…

So, I’d like to share my several step process in developing report cards.

As I see it, the most important step is the first one. The school needs to be very clear about what the grades will mean. This can be either school wide or teacher-by-teacher. In either case, students and parents have a right to know what matters when it comes to grades.

Will they focus on knowledge? skills? effort? attendance? participation? Some of the above? All of the above? In what order of importance? Be very clear about what grades mean. Of course, different teachers can have different standards.

I hope this chart is useful:


1. Establish standards that are based on objective criteria or other educational justification.

2. Create clear uncomplicated standards that are fair and easy to understand.

3. Notify everyone! This includes students and parents.

4. Implement consistently. Build in the possibility for flexibility–that is, for making exceptions in rare situations. Have a procedure in place for these.

5. Remember–This is NOT rocket science!

6. Remember–Courts defer to educators who do the above.

7. Keep smiling. Education is where it’s at!

If this chart is useful, let me know!


About Miriam

Miriam Kurtzig Freedman, JD, MA—an expert in public education, focused on special education law— is a lawyer, author, speaker, consultant, and reformer. For more than 35 years, Miriam worked with educators, parents, policy makers, and citizens to translate complex legalese into plain English and focus on good practices for children. Now, she focuses her passion on reforming special education, with her new book, Special Education 2.0—Breaking Taboos to Build a NEW Education Law. Presentations include those at the AASA Conference, Orange County (CA), Boston College (MA), CADRE (OR), and the Fordham Institute (DC). Her writings have appeared in The Wall Street Journal, Education Week, Education Next, Hoover Digest, The University of Chicago Law Review on line,, and The Atlantic Monthly on line.

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